This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 30: 5 – 12 February 1937

February 5

The Nationalist offensive begins on the west bank of the Jarama River, catching the Republicans by surprise after heavy rain. The Nationalists have highly trained men who advance with whole brigades in columns, meaning the Republicans are simply overwhelmed. While the Nationalists have a good first day, they did not gain the total control as planned, and thus begins the now-infamous battle lasting three bloody weeks.

jarama_mapThanks, Richard, for all your great maps. Visit Richard Baxell’s site for detailed Jarama info

February 6

The Nationalists ramp up the offensive of the Jarama valley. With 40,000 troops, of Moroccan soldiers and Spanish Legionnaires, with the German Condor Legion and their machine guns and anti-tank artillery, attack to cut off the Madrid-Valencia road. Alongside them is 600 Irish Blueshirts, ultra right-wing fanatics joining the fight.

Because the Republicans were already planning an offensive against the onslaught coming at them, they are not yet prepared and do not have any high ground safely covered in case of attack. The Nationalists swarm in and take the two main bridges over the  Jarama. The town of Ciempozuelos in the Jarama valley is attacked by the Nationalists and 1,300 men are killed. The Moroccans sneak in under darkness, killing all the Republican bridge guards and taking the area easily. La Marañosa hill, 700 metres high, which overlooks both sides of the Jarama River, is attacked, with the Republicans on top killed.

February 7

Meanwhile, after the Nationalists and Italian Blackshirts swarming the southern area of Málaga in southern Spain, the civilians try to flee then city towards north-eastern Almería. The sole road to take them to safety is filled with the injured and dying as they go on foot, or by slow trucks, to escape being murdered. The road is devoid of all cover and safety fleeing innocents are bombed from the air as soldiers on foot march after them to shoot them down. German planes are bombing the public, as the Navy stands by doing nothing to help the on land civilians. Skeletons will be found along the road for another thirty years.

A separate post on the road massacre will be posted on February 7

February 8

Málaga is now totally in the hands of the Nationalists. Republicans held off rifle and grenade attack, but have nothing to protect them from tanks. Those left in the city are rounded up and executions begin. Those punished with execution are for ambiguous ‘crimes’ for which are put before firing squads.  Torture and mutilation is enjoyed by the Moroccan troops, horrifying the Italian military. Mass rape is instructed by Generals, and women are raped to death, then mutilated.

You can find picture online of women, stripped, raped to death and their bodies left exposed during the SCW. I am not going to post that. Their horrific pain and humiliation is more than enough, let alone sharing images. If you wish to view that, get the fuck off my site. Seriously. Don’t come here again.

The Nationalists outside Madrid take more of the Jarama valley, the west bank of the river now in their control. The Republicans have Soviet tanks to help them hold back the enemy, but sheer numbers and ammunition are on the Nationalists’ side. The Republicans also have no air support, and are left to be bombed constantly by the Germans.

February 9

Nationalist troops win the high ground by the town of Vaciamadrid. They are quickly gaining the outskirts but the Republicans hold onto the centre of the valley. They hold on to the towns of Gozquez de Abajo and San Martin de la Vega. Republican reinforcements arrive on the east banks of the Jarama, meaning the Nationalists cannot cross the water. Heavy rain arrives again, halting the Nationalists further.

February 10

The International Brigades, the XIV and XV battalions, flood in and stop the Nationalists advancing across the Jarama valley. But the Nationalists capture 30 British volunteers at their machine gun location and sent them to the front line, and half are killed by their own side’s shots.

February 11

Moroccan soldiers cross the river and silently cut the throats of the XI International Brigade guards around their camp. More Nationalist men then cross the river and attack the fleeing volunteers. The Nationalists then also charge the Arganda bridge under heavy fire and succeed in their crossing. Republicans have laid mines along the bridge and detonate, but the bridge does not collapse. The Nationalists also attack San Martin de la Vega and cut the throats of all in the way.

The eastern banks of the river is towered over by Pingarrón hill and the Republican continue to hold the strategic point. The Garabaldi battalion hold off the Nationalists and the XI International Brigade hold off Nationalists on the Arganda-Colmenar road, who are then attacked by Soviet tanks. This holds up further Nationalist advance. Republican planes, 40 Chatos provided by the Soviets, arrive and then shoot down German Condor Legion bombers over the valley.

spanish-civilBritish battalions included New Zealand, Australian, South African and Irish volunteers

February 12

The Soviet planes are giving the Republicans power in the area and the German Condor Legion planes have to retreat. The Nationalists still have to cut off the Madrid-Valencia road. International Brigades, British and Polish men, with Spanish men making up their numbers, try to hold these last few key locations to save the road and keep it open. The volunteers are hacked into pieces by the Nationalists.

The Nationalists have fresh troops in reserve and bring them into the valley to attack the town of Morata. They also take the Pingarrón and Pajares hills in the north the valley. The XI International Brigades are caught on the hills and surrounded, with slaughter resulting. The Republicans hold Pingarrón hill but only just, and the XV International Brigade, three battalions of British, Balkan, German, French/Belgian and Irish battalions banded together, holding the San Martin-Morata road. The British battalion loses 375 men, out of a total of only 600, killed on a hillside now nicknamed Suicide Hill. The French/Belgians have to flee to survive, leaving the British men exposed and outnumbered. The Balkan and German Thaelmann battalions hold off the Nationalists with machine guns. The Nationalists have to turn back, but the Republican lines are now severely broken. The battle still has another two weeks to go.

A separate post on the killings on Suicide Hill will be posted on February 12.

bb_at_jarama~~

This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos are linked to source for credit.

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 28: 22 – 29 January 1937

Week 28: 22 – 29 January 1937

January 22

The Nationalists forces have been constantly battling to take Madrid since early November and still not able to get into the city. Franco decides its time to change tactics and attempt to cut off the city  by crossing the Jarama river, south-east of the city. This will cut off Madrid’s communications with Valencia to the east, which is the temporary Spanish capital. Franco groups together General Mola, General Varela and General Orgaz, and plans an attack 7 miles south of Madrid, with 25,000 troops and heavy artillery. The German Condors are also called in to help, while Italian troops plan an attack on Guadalajara at the same time. They plan to attack in early February.

Nationalist forces in the Jarama region

January 25

The newly formed Army of the South is still marching towards Malaga in the far south. The city is still in Republican hands, but their inland areas are slowing being eaten away by incoming troops left and right, while Italian troops march in to meet them in Malaga. The troops will take the remaining 10 miles left inland around the city in every direction as they face no resistance from unarmed Republicans.

January 27

The Basque Statute of Autonomy in the north is still holding, after being formed in October. The city of Bilbao is filled with civilians who have fled to the far north to find safety from Nationalist forces. But the Nationalists have been striking the city from the air repeatedly, to outcries from both sides. The Basques/Republicans are mostly civilians trying to stay safe, and there are prison-ships parked in the city where Nationalists are being held, now in danger by their own side. Over January, 224 are killed.

January 29

The workers’ militia are still controlling Barcelona, and most of the Catalonia region; most workers belong to the CNT/FAI. These militias have been working with the Catalonian government since the uprising in July, though the workers unions have control of the area. They have around two million members, plus the allies from the UGT union with one million members, and the Communists have just a few thousand. Regardless of numbers, everyone has equal representation.

Through some of the Catalonia region, and through much of the neighbouring Aragon region, militias have established an anarchist-led movement based on freedom and lack of government, working with the locals. While these sides in Barcelona are opposed to the Nationalist invaders, the Republican government in Valencia also sees these people as enemies, as the movement promotes freedom from government. As the situation continues to evolve, the CNT maintain control, with some representation from the Communists. The anarchists have opposition to all supervisory positions.

But trouble is starting to brew as so many factions working together is running into constant problems. The anarchists cannot work closely with the Socialists, Communists and Catalan nationalists (as in wanting independence from Spain, not the rebel Nationalists). Barcelona also has the communists splitting into different factions, some supporting Spain and the Soviet Union, the others supporting the Catalonian independence groups. Also now gaining traction are the Marxists, who formed the POUM (including famous writer George Orwell), who believe in war to gain social revolution, like the anarchists.  But the Marxists are also flaring up against Trotsyists. With all these groups working and living together, while trying to set up a new social order and hold back the Nationalist troops trying to conquer the area, things are getting heated and shaky in the northeast. They are more looking at each other rather than their common enemy.

XV International Brigade volunteers arrive in Barcelona, January, 1937

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos are linked to source for credit.

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 26: 8 – 15 January 1937

Anarchist supporters in Barcelona

January 8

The Popular Executive Committee of Valencia is dissolved. The Committee is one of eight main groups set up to look after regions (broken into almost smaller 600 collectives) which have been participating in the Spanish Revolution, an anarchist-driven change in way of life for workers of their regions. Aragon was the main driver of this movement, along with neighbouring Catalonia and Valencia regions. Workers unions were collectivised and land is redistributed between workers to create a new, more equal society. At its peak, between five to seven million people were involved in participating in this enormous and ambitious change. Now through three main phases of its operation, the end is coming to much of the programme, which is suffering for a myriad of reasons (this post could go on for months if I get too detailed). The Popular Executive Committee of Valencia, which set laws and rules in the region, is taken over by the Republican government, which can now take control of anarchist popular militias. The militias now have to join the Popular Army and fight officially for the Republicans and fight under the command of professional army officers (anarchist principles are against hierarchy). While the revolution is huge and successful many places, the collapsing of major collectives such as the Popular Executive Committee signals the beginning of the end for the anarchist revolution. (Click on the above or below photos captions to read more about the collectives and revolution)

Examples of anarchist money coupons issues in some collective areas. Other areas did away with money completely

January 9

The second battle for Corunna Road outside Madrid is coming to a close. In one day, the Nationalists take seven miles of the road between Las Rozas and Puerta de Hierro. The Republicans and International Brigades have all been killed, and a handful have managed to flee, leaving the Nationalists to control the critical supply road into Madrid.

The Garabaldi battalion, part of the XII International Brigade

January 10

The XII International Brigades (mostly Spanish volunteers, along with Italian, Franco-Belgian and Albanian volunteers) enter the region from Madrid to start the third Corunna Road battle. The next five days of fighting shall see them fight to recapture the northwest Madrid areas of Majadahonda, Villanueva, Pozuelo and Boadilla, all areas taken during the Corunna Road battles. The heavy fog has dropped on the region again making fighting cold, wet and difficult.

January 11

The Nationalist forces, which have only just finished the battles killing so many Republicans, have lost up to 15,000 men themselves (the same as the Republican side) and take cover in trenches in the under siege Madrid areas, as they are suffering from their casualties and lack of supplies.

Republican forces lying in ambush in a village near Madrid

January 15

The third battle of Corunna Road ceases. The Nationalists have convincingly won the first and second waves of battle, and now both sides are exhausted. The XII International Brigades do not have the men or supplies to take back any of the northwest Madrid areas, and the Nationalists can’t get any further with their numbers. Both sides are now exhausted and give up in their plans. The Corunna Road route is still technically open and supplies still have a chance of getting through to Madrid, though now the city will have to rely more on the roads coming from Valencia and Aragon in the east/northeast.

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos are linked to source for credit.

This Week In Spanish Civil War History – Week 2: July 25 – 31 1936

All photo

Week 2: 25 – 31 July 1936

July 25

Hitler agrees to support Franco’s bid to take over Spain. Franco needs urgent supplies and Hitler needs a distraction from his plans to dominate Europe.

Reprisal killings are happening in the south, in and around Seville. Numbers of deaths are unknown; anyone suspected of supporting the Republicans is taken away to face a firing squad.

franco_hitler

Franco and Hitler

July 26

German and Italian planes land in Morocco, ready to help the Nationalist cause. With a naval blockade halting the transfer of soldiers from Morocco to the mainland, they can be flown instead.

July 27 

The Nationalists control Seville with reinforcements from Morocco on the German-donated airplanes. Seville is to be a main centre for the rebels to plan their sweep north to capture all of Andalusia in southern Spain.

Aircraft used by the Nationalists drop a bomb on a market in Malaga, killing mainly women and children.

Fighting between Republicans and Nationalists continues in the eastern cities of Valencia and Alicante, which haven’t been captured by either side yet. Both cities are Republican strongholds.

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Republicans fighting in the streets

July 28

First bulk arrival of German and Italian planes into mainland Spain. Masses of troops arrive, ready to help local military forces, now vastly outnumbering the Republican people.

Savoia-Marchetti_SM.81

German donated aircraft used in Spain

July 29

Northern city of Gijon still fighting for control; military haven’t yet been able to claim the area.

July 30

Fighting still ongoing in Valencia as the large Republican population manage to contain the military in their barracks. Local people in support of the Nationalists are subdued by the worker’s Republican groups. Reports of old grudges between individuals being resolved with shooting, masked as executions due to the rebellion.

July 31

Great Britain bans the sale of weapons to the Republic. Most of Europe foolishly thinks that non-intervention is better than assistance.

400 Nationalist supporters killed by Republican supporters in Toledo as part of reprisal killings.

Reports from all locations of both Republicans and Nationalists being pulled from their homes and murdered, based on the perception of who they support. Reports of mass rape of women prior to being put before firing squads. Republicans are angry and trying to weed out ‘traitors’; Nationalists are killing the educated – doctors, lawyers, teachers, artists, government workers, anyone left-wing, and anyone suspected of voting Popular Front last February. Full-scale massacre has begun.

Republican prisoners about to be shot by Nationalist firing squad

Men being marched to firing squads

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggestion an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit.

Celebrate the release of ‘Death in the Valencian Dust’ with competitions and freebies!

CLICK HERE TO BUY IN PAPERBACK AND ON KINDLE

May 8 sees the release of the third and final installment of the Secrets of Spain series, entitled Death in the Valencian Dust. To celebrate the long-awaited final part of the Beltrán Morales puzzle, there are free books up for grabs!

Spain: September, 1975 – After 39 years as dictator, Francisco Franco is dying, but his parting words to the nation are leaving a bitter legacy. Jaime Morales, brother-in-law and sword handler for Spain’s greatest bullfighter, Paco Beltrán, finds himself caught up with a young Basque woman named Alazne, who seeks political change with plans of violence. Executions are handed down, and Spain collapses into turmoil in the shadow of their leader’s death and the crowning of a new king. Jaime, Alazne and entire Morales family have to face who they are and what they believe…

It’s 2014 and the final season for Spain’s favourite celebrity bullfighter, Cayetano Beltrán Morales. Guided by his father Paco and Uncle Jaime, Cayetano is reluctant to let go of his magnificent career. His wife, Luna Montgomery, has plans as she transitions from mother of the couple’s four children to leader of the Beltrán family, while fighting Spain’s ‘pact of forgetting’. Cayetano’s sister, Sofía, has rising political ambitions in Valencia as Spain crowns a new king. The final ghosts of Escondrijo, Luna’s Valencian farm, can finally speak the truth. But the Beltrán Morales family must at last recognise their identity, where they sit in Spain’s turbulent present, and their potentially fractured future.

Bodies need to be laid to rest, truths must be acknowledged, and destinies are up in the air as Luna Montgomery finds her long-awaited place in her Spanish family. But death still lurks in the Valencian mountains…

The same day as the release of Death in the Valencian Dust, sees the release of the Secrets of Spain trilogy, all together in one edition, for anyone who is starting the saga, or anyone who wishes to have this limited edition release.

To celebrate, 20 copies of Death in the Valencian Dust and 5 copies of the special Secrets of Spain edition will be given away in the ebook format of your choice. To enter, just put your name in the comment section below, along with the answer to this easy question about the series –

What is the home country of Luna Montgomery and her grandmother, Scarlett?

All names and details will not be published; all comments remain private. The winners will be published on Friday 8 May.

Also, from May 7 for four days only, both Blood in the Valencian Soil and Vengeance in the Valencian Water, the first two books in the series, will be free on all Amazon sites worldwide.

Get  Blood in the Valencian Soil free from Amazon US – HERE

Get Blood in the Valencian Soil free from Amazon UK – HERE

Get Vengeance in the Valencian Water from Amazon US – HERE

Get Vengeance in the Valencian Water from Amazon UK – HERE

Get the ‘Secrets of Spain’ series free for Christmas!

To celebrate Christmas, for 72 hours only, you can download Blood in the Valencian Soil and its sister, Vengeance in the Valencian Water for free, for your Kindle (or on any device using the free Kindle app). They are the first and second parts of the ‘Secrets of Spain‘ novel series, featuring bike mechanic Luna Montgomery from Valencia, and Cayetano Beltrán Morales from Madrid, and their quest to dig up Spanish Civil War and Franco-era mass graves, while coping with 21st century Spanish life. Get one, get both, read in any order, the choice is yours! Read about 1930′s war time Cuenca, Valencia 1957 and the flood which took over the city, and present day Valencia, Madrid and Cuenca. The series has something for everyone – Spain, history, war, bullfighting, cycling, romance… whatever you like, this series will give out your favourites and tell you the stories of ordinary people in extraordinary lives. Of course, you don’t need to have a knowledge of any of these subjects, just jump in and follow the story!

Check your timezone, so you don’t miss out on the offer. The books will be on sale –

December 22 09:01 – December 25 09:00 Europe time

December 22 00:01 – December 24  23:59 US Pacific time

December 22 21:01 – December 25 21:00 New Zealand time

Click here to download –

BLOOD IN THE VALENCIAN SOIL (US/International)

BLOOD IN THE VALENCIAN SOIL (UK)

VENGEANCE IN THE VALENCIAN WATER (US/International)

VENGEANCE IN THE VALENCIAN WATER (UK)

Valencia Photos of the Month: Horchaterías in Plaza de Santa Catalina

 

Plaza Santa Catalina in 1837, 1860, 1895 and 2013. Horchatería Santa Catalina is on the left, across the church entrance and El Siglo is on the right just before the church entrance. 

Plaza de Santa Catalina (named after the Santa Catalina church), off Plaza de la Reina, located in the heart of Valencia since forever, is home to two of Valencia’s long-standing and iconic stores, all-but across the tiny pedestrian street from one another and selling the same product – horchata.

Horchata (orxata in Valencian) is the local beverage of the ages. The drink is made of tiger nuts, water and sugar; you can get substandard versions made from almonds or rice elsewhere, but Valencia is the home of the product. When the Muslims owned/ ran/ inhabited the city from the 8th-13th centuries, they perfected the drink, made from chufas (tiger nuts) in nearby Alboraia, outside the city area. It looks as if made from milk, but dairy-avoiders have no need to shy away from the drink. It is served ice-cold and has fartons (don’t poke fun of the name), long pastry delights dipped in for extra fun.

horchata gif

Right across from the entrance to the Santa Catalina church is Horchateria de Santa Catalina, which is decorated in the traditional tile design of the area. After several hundred years and multiple royal visits, they know what they are serving. Horchata, fartons, various pastries, churros and coffees are all available, and you can get your sugar on for just a few euros. It’s one of Valencia’s quiet icons, with a handy location to everywhere in the old town.

 

Across the tiny street is Horchatería El Siglo, who have been serving up horchata since 1836. The same products as across the street, though with a simpler setting, and some argue, better quality horchata. They also have a nice outdoor setting area. Again, for a few euros you can have all you want and chill with the locals. Or could, because as of 31 December 2014, thanks to a law changing rents in Spain, disaster has struck El Siglo. While the rent increases, put up to current market rates, have been coming for the last twenty years, they have now come into force. While many of the 9000 local family-owned stores in Valencia, the classic older stores of the city, managed to negotiate rents (going up thousands of euros a month!), some, like El Siglo have instead decided to close their doors and have the owners retire. Rents have been frozen, some for up to half a century, in Spain for the aid of businesses, and that helpful time has come to an end. After all this time, a law has closed El Siglo and we’ll be seeing some ugly generic Starbucks in there, even though they are everywhere like a plague. Thousands of stores around Spain will now disappear thanks to this law change. You will be seeing more franchises and generic stores over the beautiful lace stores, shoe stores, doll repairers (yes), antique shops, tailors, cafes, basket weavers, horchaterías et al, businesses handed down through generations. And that really sucks. The time for the rent freezes came to an end, and some argue it had to happen, however the face of Spain is being changed quickly, thanks to corporations who can afford the new rents.

 RIP El Siglo