This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 90 – 94: 1 – 30 April 1938

*Apologies for the delays in postings. Hopefully that should be the end of the delays now*

April 1

The Nationalist troops are over the border from Aragon into Catalonia in Fraga, but they want Lleida, 28 kilometres to the northeast. First they encounter a Republican stand at Caspe, where the factions of left-wing fighters have retreated while they regroup or flee for their lives. The Nationalists easily sweep the now destroyed town of Caspe with the help of aerial support, and the Republicans continue their retreat east.

April 3

All Republican front lines have now collapsed and the International Brigade support has been destroyed. The German Condor Legion and Italian Aviazione Legionaria provide aerial support as the Nationalists storm the town of Gandesa, 50 kilometres east of Caspe.  The International Brigades left decide it is time to make a stand and choose Gandesa as their town, but after two days of heavy fighting, the Nationalists managed to either bomb or shoot many of the men. Around 140 mostly British and American fighters are captured, much of them from the XV International Brigade, while the Nationalists lose no men due to their aerial attack. As the volunteers are taken prisoner, many other Republicans are given the chance to escape over the Ebro river to safety.

Meanwhile, 80 kilometres north, the Nationalists have already reached the Catalonian town of Lleida, partly with the help of the Aragon fields, which are good airstrips for the huge aerial campaign the Francoists are waging in the region.  The town of Lleida has  a short-lived battle, for they too are overwhelmed by Nationalists.

For the first time, the Nationalist troops can see the sea, around 50 kilometres east of Gandesa over mountainous terrain.

April 4

Today marks the first day of the Battle of Segre, which lasts for nine months along the edges of the Segre river. Both sides will each bring in 180,000 men into what will be one of the longest battles of the entire war. The Segre river runs along the border of Aragon and Catalonia, providing a fortunate front line for the Republicans, who need all the help they can get. The river helps to power the hydro dams close to the border at the Pyrenees, and provide much of the power and supplies for the city of Barcelona. The Republicans set up fortifications along the east bank of the Segre while the Nationalists set up along the west, marking the first of hundreds of skirmishes.

New York University students in the Lincoln battalion, in April, 1938.Photograph from AP

April 5

The small town of Balaguer, on the Catalonian side of the Segre river, suffers the first of two days of attacks by Nationalist air forces. Balaguer is only 28 kilometres north up the river from Lleida, yet Nationalist men manage to get over a bridge at Balaguer. Republicans are able to fight back and get the Nationalists back over the river. Balaguer is one of the first town to be caught up in the Segre battle.

the Battle of Lleida

April 8

In the far north, Franco’s men have managed to claim several hydro-electric dams. With the  Talarn Dam already claimed in Lleida, these plants in the Pyrenees are vital to the survival of Barcelona. With this major coup, Franco could now easily take Barcelona and Catalonia. But Franco doesn’t want this; he wants a long drawn-out defeat of the Republicans, one that will inflict maximum suffering and death, plus a huge humiliation which will destroy any rebellion against Franco’s plans.

Franco decides he wants to continue to push through southern Catalonia and the Levante area of northern Valencia to the coast, rather than risk angering France and having them enter the battle along the Pyrenees.

April 10

The bridge over the Segre river is captured again by the Nationalists at Balaguer, allowing them access over the river to the stronghold the Republicans have set up.

Republican men on the border with France in the Pyrenees

April 12

The Republicans in the Balaguer area, most only teenage boys with no training, are part of the XVIII Army Corps,  who counterattack along the edges of the Segre in what turns into three days of fighting that sees all of the young and keen men killed by the better organised Nationalists, who continue to establish themselves east of the river.

Nationalist soldier on a captured Republican tank

April 15

While things north have slowed, the Levante Offensive continued its planning as Nationalist troops under General Aranda break through and reach the coastline at Vinaròs, the most northern town in the Valencia region, rather than aiming along the Catalonian coast. While Vinaròs is a town ill-equipped and easily surrenders, it is a huge blow for the Republicans and great for Nationalist morale. The Valencian and Catalonian regions have suffered from bloody aerial attacks and internal fighting, but until now have far from the front-lines of the war. Within only four days, the Nationalist have 70 kilometres of coastline around Vinaròs.

Nationalists at Vinaros

April 19

The Aragon Offensive is finally declared over, as the region is now totally under Nationalist control. But while the Nationalists have been fighting east from Teruel to the coast, the French border has been opened for Soviet supplies to flood in, to aid the Republicans. Franco is now on the coastline and has cut off Valencia from Barcelona, but Republicans along the coast and in both regions are formidable and ready to fight back.

Cyclist battalion at the front. Levante, 1938

April 22

Another battle breaks out in Balaguer, as the Republicans fight to keep the Nationalists west of the Segre river. A week of fighting in the area sees many Republicans killed as the Nationalists finally manage to gain control over the bridge in the town. But the Republicans have not lost the area around Balaguer; they will manage to hold out for another four months, though Republican casualties will be high.

April 25

The Levante Offensive officially begins, a month after troops enter the area. The Nationalists have 125,000 troops ready to take the region with 400 aircraft, upwards of 1000 pieces of artillery and Italian support. General Varela starts to head south from Teruel in Aragon, General Aranda is in Vinaròs, and the third faction under General Valiño are in the mountainous area between these locations, all spread over a 200 kilometre area. But the terrain is difficult and wet weather means the offensive is paused after only two days. In the meantime, the Republicans in the Valencia region now have anti-aircraft guns and machine guns, fresh from the Soviet supplies, along with men who are new to fighting. It won’t be until June that these Nationalists capture any serious areas.

Nationalist troops advancing in the Levante

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the month’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

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This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 82-85: 80 Years Since the Battle of Teruel, February 1938

February  7

In the last calvary charge of modern warfare, the Nationalists attack Teruel from the north, while Republican forces are centred in the south of the town.  The Nationalists launch an attack along the Alfambra river north of Teruel, a front-line thirty kilometres long with 100,000 men and 500 guns. This massive charge in an undefended area means the Nationalists make it through the front-lines and into Teruel itself. The Republicans who can, run for their lives, scattered out in every direction to hide or be slaughtered. Generals Yague and Aranada consider this their moment of victory in the Teruel battle.

the leftovers of Teruel town itself

February 18

Many Republcians are still in hiding in the Teruel area, and Aranda and Yague have to ensure the town is cut off completely from any further reinforcements reaching the surrounding areas. Anyone left alive not on the Nationalist side must be pulled out of their hiding places and killed. Since the Alfambra charge, the Republicans have lost more than 22,000 men, including 7,000 prisoners, and the Nationalists have claimed an area of 1300 square kilometres around Teruel.

Republicans defenders in Teruel before their capture

February 20

The road from Teruel east to Valencia is destroyed, cutting the area off from the relatively safe Republican city. No one can reach Teruel or surrounding villages and areas, as all mountains and roads are Nationalist front-lines. General Saravia for the Republicans orders a total retreat of all Republicans and International Brigades from this lower Aragon area. Some 14,500 men are still trapped in the new Nationalist zone and have no chance to be rescued or have reinforcements fight their way in to help them in battle.

civilians fleeing the Teruel region

February 22

Well known Communist leader El Campesino (Valentín González González), manages to break through Nationalist lines and escape, where he claims he was left by other Communist leaders to die. The Nationalists now have all of the Teruel region to themselves, and declare victory. Their prize is around 10,000 Republican bodies strewn through the town itself. It is estimated that around 85,000 Republicans have been killed, and around 57,000 Nationalists are dead. 

The Nationalists, though battered, can quickly resupply men in the area, thanks to taking the massive factories in the Basque country the year before. But the Republicans have lost the bulk of their men and all of their airforce has been destroyed and cannot be replaced. Not only that but Republican morale has fallen desperately, and now they have no towns or areas in which they occupy to keep Valencia or Barcelona safe from the ever-increasing Nationalists. Franco is ready to begin the new Aragon offensive, to push through to the eastern coast and crush these two cities.

February 25

Any remaining Republicans, Communists and International Brigades left alive in Aragon huddle to form a front line along the bank of the Alfambra river, about 40 kilometres north of the Teruel town itself. As the Nationalists prepare for the upcoming Aragon offensive, these men have no plans or artillery to aid them.
International Brigades after seeking safety north of Teruel

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the month’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 77-81: Teruel and Cáceres, January 1938

James Neugass accompanying Cuban volunteer Pablo Carbonell, killed in action in Teruel

January 1

It is Republicans versus Nationalists in hand-to-hand combat in the Convent of Santa Clara, where the original Nationalist garrison are held up on the western edge of Teruel. All the Nationalist fighters in the Convent are killed.

January 3

Another of the initial Nationalist hold-out spots is destroyed, the Civil Governor’s Building. They fight the Republicans floor to floor in the building, the fight witnessed and reported by Ernest Hemingway. All Nationalists in the building are eventually killed, and soon after, the Seminary of Santa Clara is overrun by Republicans when the defenders have no water or food, are low on supplies and the buildings themselves are destroyed by the fighting.

January 8

Colonel Domingo Rey d’Harcourt is still holding out, with only a Bank of Spain building in Nationalist hands inside Teruel, while the reinforcements are still kept outside of the small city. Because of the horrific cold weather, Franco’s troops cannot get into Teruel, and finally Colonel d’Harcourt and his men surrender, along with Bishop Anelmo Polanco. Teruel is officially in Republican hands. The Colonel and Bishop will be sent to Valencia, and then towards Barcelona along with the remaining 40 Nationalist men captured. All will be executed on February 7 en route to France.

January 17

The weather has finally cleared over Teruel. The Nationalist garrison inside the town, which was at 9,500 men when the Republicans first attacked, are all dead. However the 100,000 reinforcements continue to attack the city.

Republicans in Teruel

January 19

The Republicans, despite having similar numbers to the Nationalists, are concerned they cannot hold Teruel, with low supplies and equipment. The International Brigades, who have been in the area, are officially called in to help. The enormous numbers of men on both sides leads to fierce fighting and dramatic damage done to Teruel, though little gains are made for either side. Civilians in the town have now fled, or been killed in the crossfire as the Republicans become surrounded in Teruel.

January 21

The killings in Cáceres have continued though the first weeks of 1938. By the 20th, a total of 196 Republican civilians have been executed. Among the dead are forty Francoist soldiers who were accused of being secret Republicans. The killings, which started at Christmas, continued over New Year and sixteen miners were killed on The King’s Day, the Epiphany, the most celebrated Spanish day of January 6. The tiny nearby village of Navas del Madroño had 54 people killed in one day, and Malpartida de Cáceres lost twelve men. Men, women and children are lined up and executed through the region, and any orphans left over are sent to brutal Francoist orphanages. A total of 675 people are killed in this tiny region during the war, including the 196 victims of these killings, people killed over rumours and outright lies. Their bodies were not be recovered or given a memorial for nearly 80 years.

Numbers of people killed, in date order.

January 23

Back in Teruel, the Nationalists have finally pushed the Republicans off the Teruel Tooth mountain ridge over the city. The Nationalists still hold the train station and bullring in the southwest area but cannot make any more gains.

January 25

The Republicans launch a huge counteroffensive to take back the Teruel Tooth ridge and the train station, so they can be again connected to Valencia. While numbers are massive on both sides, the Nationalists cannot break into Teruel any further, and the Republicans cannot beat them back. The south of Teruel is where heavy fighting occurs. This bloody fighting without gain for either side will continue for another two weeks. If the Republicans lose Teruel, they will lose their hold over Franco being cut off from the Mediterranean.

The Lincoln Brigade stationed outside Teruel

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 76: The Battle of Teruel 23 – 31 December 1937

December 23

Franco knows his planned Guadalajara offensive is futile, as Teruel needs all of the manpower in the area, despite anger from the German and Italian allies who want to take Madrid and end the war.

December 25

In the small city of Cáceres in the far western region of Extremadura, 34 men are murdered, some taken from the dinner table during quiet Christmas Day meals. A shooting range is set up at the barracks of the 27th Algiers infantry regiment, where sixty Guardia Civil men could kill the chosen victims. Among the victims was the socialist Mayor Antonio Canales and President of the Provincial Council Ramón González Cid. Others were local trade union members, teachers, UGT members and Republican sympathisers, some already under arrest for months. The province had been under Nationalist control since the beginning of the war, but false rumours of an uprising led to the deaths. No plans by Republican or Communist members were planning an uprising, only lies spread by local Nationalist leaders. The story of a fake coup led by Máximo Calvo  was announced by the Falange on December 23, leading to the arrests and execution of the men. It would be the start of one month of scheduled killing around the area, leading to a total 196 dead, including 14 women, all executed for non-existent crimes.

Nationalist Colonel Domingo Rey d’Harcourt has been trying to hold out while reinforcement troops arrive in Teruel. Now two generals, Antonio Aranda and José Enrique Varela have arrived, with fresh  experienced men, and the Condor Legion has arrived to attack Teruel from the air.

December 30

Nationalist men are already making gains, by getting on the La Muela (Teruel Tooth) mountain beside the town. The weather continued to close in on both sides, making defense and attack slow and dangerous.

Frozen tanks seen by Robert Capa

December 31

The Republicans have continued their assault on the four strategic buildings the Nationalist held in the town  -the Convent of Santa Clara and the Seminary of Santa Clara, the Bank of Spain building, and the Civil Governor’s Building. By the time the new year began, all the Nationalists inside the Convent of Santa Clara had been murdered.

The final day of 1937 saw the start of a vicious four-day blizzard, with frostbite that will claim lives and limbs while the fighting continues. But 1937’s final day also saw the Nationalists hold their position on the Teruel Tooth, and get into Teruel’s bullring and railway station, both at the lowest southern point of the town. With the temperature at minus 18C, machine guns are frozen, and the reinforcement Nationalist troops do not enough warm clothing to make many gains.

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

 

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 75: The Battle of Teruel 15 -23 December 1937

December 15

Enrique Lister’s Republican brigade attacks Teruel in falling snow. Teruel has around 4,000 Nationalists holding the main town, half just civilians. Another 5,000 are in the surrounding area. The Republicans now have almost 100,000 men, half the Army of the Levante and the other the Army of the East. By the end of the day, they have surrounded Teruel, and have the critical location of La Muela, the Teruel Tooth, the highest ridge overlooking the town.
civilian evacuation from Teruel

December 17

The Nationalists, headed by Colonel Domingo Rey d’Harcourt, are struggling to hold their position in the town. The Nationalist men outside the town walls are called in to help keep the Republicans at bay, and the Nationalists have to surrender their attempts to reclaim La Muela.

Republican soldier on duty

December 19

Franco has been planning a major battle at Guadalajara outside Madrid, but now postpones his plan so the Teruel troops can receive back-up. The German and Italian allies are unhappy with this decision, as they wanted to strike a final huge blow and march into Madrid and end the war. Franco now knows he cannot end the war this way and has to win by a war of attrition. Franco is determined that no city or town will fall to the Republicans once captured by Nationalists, and keeping Teruel becomes critical in saving face as well as ground.

Hemingway arrives in Teruel

December 21

Without any aerial bombardment or major artillery, the Republicans march into Teruel, as they simply have more men in the battle. Colonel Domingo Rey d’Harcourt and his remaining men retreat into the southern edge of the town, and hope to hold four main buildings – the Convent of Santa Clara and the Seminary of Santa Clara, the Bank of Spain building, and the Civil Governor’s Building. The Nationalists are down to around 4,000 men after only a week of fighting. The fighting is down to hand to hand combat, men being bayoneted after the building they hide inside is pounded with artillery. Ernest Hemingway  and Herbert Matthews enter Teruel with the Republican troops to report on the fighting, giving the battle a large following.

Republicans outside Teruel

December 23

The Nationalists are still holding their four main locations, but the rest of Teruel is held but the Republicans. Franco decides that a Guadalajara offensive is now impossible. Franco tells Colonel Rey d’Harcourt  to hold out no matter the human cost, as the Guadalajara troops are on their way to Teruel, which will take six days. The weather in Teruel continues to get worse, the depths of winter being awful, even by Teruel’s icy standards. It will be the coldest winter in 40 years, with men sleeping in four feet of snow to hold their position. Frozen guns and frostbite are rife. Franco is sending General Antonio Aranda and General José Enrique Varela, two very vicious and successful leaders, with what will become 100,000 men, enough to match the Republican garrison.

Republicans head into Teruel

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information. All pictures in this post ar courtesy of Magnum Photos, taken by Robert Capa.