This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 7: 29 August – 4 September 1936

Week 7: 29 August – 4 September 1936

Bonus: 28 August

The battle of Monte Pelado, a mountainous area between Almudécar and Huescar, 300 kilometres west of Barcelona, is fought between the Nationalists and Republicans. The battle was significant because the Republicans, the Francisco Ascaso column, are Catalonian anarchists flanked by the Matteotti battalion, a group of Italian fighters who have freshly arrived in Spain to help. The Nationalists have around 500 soldiers on the mountain, a major gun emplacement. A four-hour dawn battle sees the Republicans win, though they suffer huge losses including prominent Italian anarchist Mario Angeloni. Many columns have been marching out of Barcelona since 17 August, now all placed west or southwest of the city, attempting to take control of major locations.

Anarchists and Italian volunteers in Monte Pelado

31 August

Just 30 kilometres north of of the town of Andújar (near Jaén), in the mountains of the national park, 1,200 right-wing supporters, including Guardia Civil members and women and children, are hiding in the Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza church sanctuary. The town was not initially taken by the Nationalists, and the Falange supporters fled into the hills to hide. They have now been hiding for over a month, surviving on stolen items in the mountains, and are ready to defend themselves in a major siege against the Republicans, which is only days from starting.

Santuario de la Virgen de la Cabeza before the battle begins

3 September

A battle begins in Talavera de la Reina, 140 kilometres west of Madrid. The Republicans have been unable to hold back Nationalist troops marching from Seville, and are constantly losing ground. The Nationalists have won hundreds of miles without any fighting, but the Republicans have 10,000 men in Talavera ready to block the troops’ way to Madrid.  The battle begins at dawn, with the Nationalists taking the train station and aerodome immediately. Many Republicans panic and flee the town, deserting their fellow fighters and the public. A full attack takes place throughout the day, and while the Nationalists lose 1,000 of their trained soldiers, they win the town, and killed 500 Republicans, and capture another 1,000 to execute or imprison. Now, the capital city of Madrid has nothing to protect it from vicious Colonel Yague and his soldiers.

Massacre at Talavera de la Reina

Two weeks after the Republicans surrounded the island of Mallorca, they have not made much progress in getting to the prime inland heart of the island. The Nationalists have soldiers and equipment, and planes to bomb the Republicans on the coastline. The Republicans retreat in a hurry, leaving behind weapons and equipment and even some of their men.

September 4

Already the Republican government is undergoing changes, and Francisco Largo Caballero replaces José Giral. The new government is made up of six Socialists, four Republicans, two Communists, plus a Republican representative of Catalonia and a Basque nationalist, bringing the two areas into the fold. The anarchists still refuse to join the government, despite fighting alongside them in battle. The CNT now have a solid voice in the government.

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit

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This Week In Spanish Civil War History – Week 1: July 17 – 24 1936

Here is the first installment of a new series, a weekly post chronicling the Spanish Civil War, 80 years after the uprising in July 1936. The Spanish Civil War is a complex subject, but if you are new, here is a super simple round-up.

A country with a rocky past, but the more recent Spanish troubles started in 1931, when the monarchy was exiled, creating the Second Spanish Republic. Left-wingers won an election, but as people tried fighting for basics, like fair wages, workers’ rights, women’s rights, education etc, nothing went well, no one agreed, and right-wing conservatives and the church resisted in every which way. Power switched in every direction, but when the Republican left-wing Popular Front took power in February 1936, the military considered an uprising to restore conservative control. Tensions ran high for several months, and when several prominent left and right-wing leaders were murdered in Madrid in July, the match was lit for battle.

The Republicans, the Spanish left, consisted of the Popular Front government, combined with socialists, communists, anarchists, workers’ unions, Marxists, leaders of autonomous Spanish regions like Catalonia and Galicia, and later the International Volunteers. The Spanish right consisted of the military, the Falange fascists, the religious Carlists and the monarchists.

People quickly had to decide which side they were on, though this would have been obvious in most people’s lives already. Within days, thousands were killed for being on the ‘wrong’ side, depending on the consensus of their town or city. What happened next was three years of bloody murder, fighting and executions.

Week 1 – July 17-24 1936

July 17

A military rebellion starts in Morocco, with the Spanish Legion soldiers killing or imprisoning their Generals. Guardia Civil police try to hold back the military in Tetuán and  Larache, resulting in bloody battles. Within a day, Spanish Morocco has fallen to the rebel soldiers. Three Generals – Franco, Mola, and Sanjurjo, all recently demoted within the army, have set up much of the plans. Franco declares a state of war, a call for soldiers to rebel all over mainland Spain and take control of their towns and cities. Anyone who resists gets a bullet.

The Prime Minster, Santiago Casares Quiroga, does nothing to arm the population of Spain, instead spending all day on the phone, ensuring no military barracks decide to rise up in support of the angry Generals.

Armed workers’ militia in July 1936

July 18

Word has spread and the socialists, communists, anarchists and workers’ unions are ready to fight to preserve the Republican government. By dawn, Pamplona, Segovia, Cadiz, Avila, Salamanca and Zaragoza are already overcome by the military, with many deaths. Zaragoza was a stronghold of the anarchists, so it is a huge blow to the Republicans.

The rebel Nationalists already have 1/3 of the country under their control and systemic executions start as other locations rise to protect themselves. Unions offer to help if given weapons, but are refused. Workers strike and start building barricades in the streets.

July 19

By dawn, the prime minister has resigned, and after negotiations, José Giral takes over, giving weapons to the population to defend themselves after formally disbanding the army.

tof-02-035aWeapons handed out to the populace

Seville fights but is defeated by the rebels. Much of southern Spain is invaded and executions begin. Navarre in the north falls to the rebels in a bloody massacre. The city of Burgos has no fighting, totally in support of the military.

Jaén, San Sebastian, Santander and Malaga manage to hold back the rebels. The important cities of Madrid and Barcelona have not yet been taken by the military. Madrid is on a knife-edge as workers are armed, ready to do battle, the assault guards personnel on their side.

General Franco leaves his post in the Canary Islands to take control in Morocco. Barcelona faces battle in the streets, with armed workers and police fighting the large military contingent. The police divisions could not hold the city on their own, and arms are given to the public to help with the siege.

July 20

After two days fighting in the streets, Barcelona is won by the Republican population. In Madrid, workers lay siege to the military barracks, killing many and saving the capital city with people power, as in Barcelona.

condorsMallorca, Coruña, Vigo, Bilbao and Granada are all won by the rebels. Valencia is still in confusion, when the army did not take sides. Fighting begins as workers strike and attack the military barracks.

The rebel military leader, General Sanjurjo, flies from exile in Portugal but is killed when his plane crashes due to plane overloading.

July 21

All chances of ending the rebellion is over, although Seville is the only main city controlled by the military.

SpanishCivilWar_DivisionOfSpain_193607endAreas controlled by Republicans and nationalists in the early days of the war

The Siege of the Alcázar starts in Toledo, south of Madrid. The Alcázar (castle/fort) is filled with rebels and their hostages as Republicans fight to free the women and children inside and defeat the rebels.

July 22

The People’s Olympiad, (an event held in protest against Germany holding the Olympics) get cancelled with the outbreak of war, with many athletes in the city at the outbreak. Many were trapped in Barcelona as fighting started; some choose to fight.

The navy is loyal to the government and the Republicans. Sailors got word of the uprising and defied and killed most navy officers, saving the navy from the rebels. The air force never intended to turn against the government, but didn’t have much in the way of planes or power anyway.

808-0001-001People’s Olympiad poster

July 23

The Nationalist rebels start their own military government, the Junta de Defensa Nacional, based in right-wing Burgos. General Miguel Cabanellas is their leader.

All areas are suffering from killings and prisoner-takings, regardless of who won the uprising.

July 24

The Durruti Column, led by leader Buenaventura Durruti volunteer to leave safe Barcelona and head to Aragon to start fighting back the rebels. About 3000 workers leave in their first group to begin  a take back of rebel-held areas.

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From now on, each weekly round-up will be posted on a Monday. All photos are linked to original sources for photo credit.

This is not an in-depth analysis, merely a weekly highlight (lowlight?) round-up. Comments on any extra details anyone wishes to add are welcome.