This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 51/52: 3 – 17 July 1937

July 6

Under the cover of pre-dawn, the Republican men (between 70-85,000 total for the battle, 22,000 for the initial attack), commanded by General Miaja, sneak deep behind the Nationalist front lines, who lack troops on the ground. Rather than having men along the front lines, the Nationalists have men stationed at a series of towns north and east of Brunete (see map), their headquarters in Navalcarnero, 15kms south of Brunete. At dawn, the Republicans bombard all the towns around Brunete by air with 100 planes brought to the well-planned battle, and heavy artillery is used on the ground, catching the Nationalists off guard. General Líster and his newly reformed 11th division manage to advance 8kms through the front lines and circle around Brunete. By midday, the Republicans have the strategic town of Brunete. While the town does not have anything particular the Republicans want, it was proof they could dig into Nationalist territory and fight their enemy. This was to convince the Soviets to send more aid, and the French to open their borders to arms shipments.

The Nationalists, still commanded by General Varela, quickly pull together reinforcements around the area, and by midday as the Republicans claimed Brunete, the Nationalist 12th, 13th and 150th divisions are ready to fight back. The Nationalists have 45,000 troops in the immediate area to fight back. The Republicans quickly are met with resistance as they seek to storm south of Brunete, but are held in the town. The Republicans, flanked by the 34th and 46th divisions, attempt to break towards Quijorna, 6kms north-west of Brunete itself, but also cannot fight the sudden onslaught of Nationalists. The advance of the Republicans on the first day surprises even themselves, and the XVIII Army Corps, another 20,000 men (the 10th, 13th and 34th divisions) are not deployed, as they were not expected to be needed.

The east-located Republicans, who planned to fight from Carabanchel, the most southern suburb of Madrid, never break through the front lines, the Nationalists close into Madrid in full control of the area. The Republicans use heavy artillery bombing and still cannot break the Nationalists around Madrid.

July 7

An overnight stalemate outside the village of Villanueva de la Cañada ends at 7am when the 15th division, with the British XV International Brigades, take the town and Nationalists flee. The villages of Villanueva del Pardillo and Villafranca del Castillo, 9kms north of Villanueva de la Cañada, are still held by Nationalists. The 15th division need to head to Boadilla, 12km east of Villanueva de la Cañada, so the 10th division attacks the Nationalists on nearby Mosquito Ridge. The Republicans force the Nationalists back to Boadilla, which is only 18kms from southern Madrid.

Fires are starting to break out in the dry landscape outside Brunete due to firepower being used. Neither side make any advancements. The Republicans are keen to fight off each small resistance as they come, rather than moving around them and onto larger targets. This gives the Nationalists time to bring in fresh men.

Republican tanks seen by Gerda Taro outside Brunete

July 8

The Republican XVIII Army Corps of 20,000 men attack under darkness to cross the Guadarrama River and head east towards Boadilla and attack the Nationalists trying to hold the front lines outside Boadilla. Fighting continues after daybreak and the Republicans win, only to be repelled later in the day.

The Republicans in Madrid again attack the front lines at Carabanchel and fail. They will not attack here again as the circle around Madrid is a Nationalist priority and will not fail. The Nationalists also still hold the village of Quijorna west of Brunete. Franco sends 31 battalions, seven batteries of artillery and the entire Condor Legion (around 70 planes) from the Basque Country to help the Nationalists, finally giving the battered Basques a break.  The Republicans still have little more than their WWI artillery and guns with the troops.

International Brigades outside Boadilla

July 9

Two Republican brigades attack Quijorna, and take the village after suffering massive losses. Republican troops headed east towards Boadilla have suffered such great losses that they are now stranded, so close to the village itself. The Republican air support, while starting strong, are now outpaced by the German Condor Legion, who are taking control of the skies.

July 10

The Republican 60th division and XII International Brigades take Villanueva del Pardillo with tanks. Around 500 Nationalists are captured along with precious ammunition. Nearby Villafranca del Castillo is surrounded by Republicans by the 10th and 45th divisions.

Taken by Gerda Taro with Republican men outside Brunete

July 11

Colonel Jurado of the XVIII Army Corps plans a huge assault on Villafranca del Castillo, but falls ill and is replaced by co-leader Colonel Casado, who cancels the assault due to morale and fatigue. They are forced to engage by Republican leader General Miaja. The Nationalists are reinforced from a division arrived from Navarre and repel the assault. The Nationalists then try to take back Villanueva del Pardillo, but fail. Overhead these villages, huge air battles are being fought, up to 30 planes flying in formation against similar numbers in retaliation, with losses on both sides.

On the ground throughout the whole area, both sides are suffering horrific losses. American communist Oliver Law, commander of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, is killed while fighting on Mosquito Hill, the ridge outside the town of Boadilla, among heavy Republican losses.

July 12

France decides to open its border with Spain (the point of the Brunete attack, to show Spain’s strength), and enormous amounts of weapons and equipment is shipped into Spain over several days, vital for the Republican cause to continue. France has violated the Non-Intervention clause, but this is retaliation for the Fascist Germans and Italians constant assistance the war on behalf of Nationalists.

July 14

The Republicans are suffering huge losses, not just from fighting. The extreme heat in the area plus lack of water has injured many men. Most Republican brigades, Spanish and International, have lost between 40 to 60 percent of their men in a week. The XIV International Brigades have lost 80 percent of the men. Total losses have not yet been tallied though between 15,000 and 20,000 Republicans are now dead, the Nationalists suffering similar.

Republicans outside Boadilla

July 16

British volunteer Major George Nathan dies while commanding the XV International Brigades when a bomb detonates at his post near Boadilla. Attacks on all fronts are now minor and General Miaja of the Republican Army wants to end the offensive. The Republicans have Brunete and have cut off the Extremadura Road. The Basque country is relieved by diverted Nationalist troops and planes. The Republicans look strong in the eyes of the French and Soviets again, and their main objectives have been achieved. However the Nationalists surrounding Madrid have not yet been totally cut off from the Army of the South.

July 17

The Republicans are ill, battered, without serious supplies and suffering from their massive losses. They dig in all areas in the Brunete front and prepare for the Nationalist counterattack they know is coming. Some 38,000 Nationalists are coming.

The war is one year old today. Spain is fractured and blood had spilled in every city and village. No one is safe. No end is in sight. No saviour is coming.

Republicans dig in outside Brunete

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

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This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 49/50: 19 June – 3 July 1937

June 21

Andreu Nin, the leader of the POUM is assassinated. After being held for four days in a secret Communist prison in Alcála de Henares and tortured, Soviet KNVD members kill Nin. Nin never gave the Soviets the information they interrogated him and his fellow members for, or never had the information.  The exact details of Nin’s killing will never be fully established. Nin had been the leader of the POUM (Workers’ Party of Marxist Unification) for two years, and stood against fascism and Stalinism, and in favour of workers and peasants’ rights. Nin’s death by Soviet agents marked the demise of both the POUM and its revolutionary movement. Hundreds more are killed or imprisoned after Nin’s death. While Communists and anti-Stalinists are technically both anti-fascist and against Franco’s Nationalists, the constant fighting between leftist factions is a huge contributor to the Republicans being by Franco’s men.

June 24

Bilbao is now fully in the hands of the Nationalists and hundreds of thousands have fled either over the border into France or west towards Santander and the Galician coast. The total toll of the Bilbao battle is not established, but the defeated Republican/Basque fighters had started with 50,000 troops, the winning  Nationalists with 75,000 (including 15,000 Italians, which only around 105 killed). Nationalists give out food to some of the remaining women in the Basque region, those who were unable to flee the city. The strategic production factories of the Basque country are now in Nationalist hands.

June 27

The high point of Soviet intervention in the SCW is coming to a close. The Soviet Union has been sending regular shipments of military equipment to Spain to help the Republicans, in return for Spain sending its gold to the Soviets, who get the better end of the deal, grossly overcharging the Spanish government. At this stage, there are over 1000 Soviet tank crews on the ground in Spain and the bulk of trained pilots fighting for the Republicans are Soviet. The communist faction of the Republican clause is now strongest than ever and the diplomatic relations between the Spanish and Soviets remains strong in an effort to defeat fascism in Spain. But now shipments will become sparse and Soviet men will be withdrawn from Spain as the Nationalists continue to win and the Republicans suffer massive casualties and lose ground.

June 30

The front line around the Aragon region is a huge 450 kilometres stretch from the Pyrenees down to the city of Teruel. The Republicans have far more troops in the region and the Nationalists have not made the area a priority. The Republicans have already attacked Huesca and failed, and are yet to attack Teruel. As a large Brunete battle is being mounted west of Madrid, the Republicans decide to start planning an offensive of the historical village of Albarracín, 35 kilometres west of Teruel. That way, the Nationalists will be forced to keep troops in the Aragon region instead of attacking Brunete. The front lines on the east side of Madrid around Jarama and Guadalajara still have not moved since their offensives early in the year. The Albarracín offensive is prepared for early July.

XV International Brigades outside Brunete

July 2

The preparation for the battle of Brunete is almost complete. Brunete is 30 kilometres west of Madrid, and is chosen as it is on the Extremadura Road. The Nationalists hold the region of Extremadura and use the roads to supply troops circling Madrid. By cutting off supplies, the Republicans aim to save the city of Madrid from the Nationalists. Once Brunete is taken, then the Republicans plan to march 100 kilometres southwest to Talavera de la Reina, which has been held by the Nationalists for the whole war, nearing on one year. This will cut off Nationalist troops from the southern strongholds. Republican troops at Carabanchel, the southern suburbs of Madrid, will be launched at the same time to tie up Madrid-based Nationalists.

The Communists within the Spanish government have been pressing to take Brunete for months, and are pulling Soviet aid back at the same time, as Republican ports have been taken by Nationalists. Spanish Prime Minister Juan Negrín wants France to open its borders to allow arms shipments through, but first they must prove to the French they are capable of military action. The offensive has been well planned and with large-scale reorganisation of the Republican men and equipment. Experienced commanders are put in place and will operate a surprise attack, despite being planned for three months. Upwards of 85,000 men are placed ready to take the hilly terrain with new Soviet tanks, attacking the Nationalists who have 20,000 fewer troops in the region. The attack is planned for July 6.

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

 

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 18: 14 – 21 November 1936

Week 18: 14 – 21 November 1936

Simplified if you don’t read Spanish –

Numbers are labelled by position of where which column (group) is located on November 16-17. Blue squares are Nationalist, Red are Republicans, and orange are French (and associated supporters) supporting the Republicans. Grey lines – front line. Stars – volunteers in position. Blue arrows – Nationalists making their attack. Spotted blue arrows – aircraft flights, with bombs dropped (blue dots).

November 15

Nationalist soldiers (Morrocan regaulres and Legionaires)  cross the Manzanares River and take over in Ciudad Universitaria (University City). The XIth International Brigade for the Republicans men counter attacks at the ‘Hall of Philosophy and Letters’, however the whole column make it over the river. The Republican factions take the Hall and force the Nationalists to either be killed or run for cover, with over 85% being killed as they flee.

Nationalist soldiers make it as far as  Plaza de la Moncloa inside Madrid, some as far as  Plaza de España in central Madrid before being attacks by the Durruti Column and forced out again. At this point, most bridges over the Manzanares River are now destroyed.  The Nationalists build the ‘pasarela de la puerte’ (passageway of death), a makeshift bridge, which comes under machine gun from the university all day long.

November 17

The Nationalists take the Asilo Santa Cristina Hospital. The Republican Durruti Column attack them, and stretch out to fight in University City and the Casa de Campo. But the  Durruti Column does not have enough supplies and need to retreat back to University City.

November 18

Italy and Germany both recognise Franco as the head of the new Spanish ‘government’. After over a week of battling over Madrid, the leaders all expect Madrid to be taken. Franco is ready to take all the credit but has barely lifted a finger himself in the bloody battle for control.

German aircraft are still bombarding Madrid. This is done to weaken the Republican government into surrendering (though the official government has already gone), and to hurt civilians. The Germans are throwing everything at Madrid in a bid to strengthen their ties to the new Spanish government led by Franco.

The attack north of central Madrid in University City is now three days old and is at breaking point. The Anarchist Durruti Column from Barcelona has been at the front line the whole time, and now their 3,000 strong column is down to only 400 men. The Nationalist side too have lost 1290 men. The University City suburb is largely cut off from central Madrid but neither side have any advantage.

November 19

The Durruti Column launches its dramatic big assault in University City. The Nationalists have taken the hospital and the Buenaventura Durruti men launch an attack.  The Republicans are under prepared and have little supplies; the Nationalists are not used to combat in urban areas. Fighting results in 262 Nationalist killed with no ground gained at all. The Nationalist leaders, Colonel Yague and Colonel Mola are both close to losing faith as they do not want to fight in close quarters, a fight they cannot win.

The Nationalist and Republican/International Brigades fight for control if the Hospital Clínico in the east of the University City. After heaving fighting, the sides fight with grenades and bayonets, one room and floor at a time. Both sides suffer heavy losses.

The outskirts of the city

Buenaventura Durruti is shot while on the front line in the early afternoon in the Casa de Campo.  A bullet pierces his right lung, possibly entering through his back. No one knows (or claims to not know) what actually happened. Which weapon shot him is unknown, and some speculate he was shot by his own side rather than the enemy. The true story will never be definitively uncovered.

NB: There will be a ‘This Week in Spanish Civil War History; Extra’ on Durruti on November 19, including eye-witness accounts of his death and the ‘cover-up’ story.

November 20

Buenaventura Durruti dies at 6 a.m, 16 hours after being shot in the chest. He is aged just 40 and it strikes not just a blow to end his life but also to the end of the propaganda surrounding the Durruti Column, a huge blow to the Anarchists. Durruti dies in the Ritz Hotel, which is now a makeshift hospital, and the bullet is not taken out of his heart. No autopsy is performed.

Buenaventura Durruti – anarchist fighter (and character in my next SCW novel)

November 20

Another 294 Nationalists die while fighting to take Carabanchel and Vertice Basurero to the south of Madrid. Again no gains are made in the urban assault, weakening the entire plan to take Madrid  by force.

José Antonio Primo de Rivera, son of former Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera is executed in Alicante, two days after being sentenced. Primo de Rivera has been a prisoner there since the start of the war. The Communists holding him decide to try him in a civil court before a Communist governor, as they can no longer wait a decision from the government. He is the leader of the fascist Falange party, and is killed by firing squad at dawn.  Spanish PM Largo Caballero is angered at the Communists for taking their own action, but the Republicans rely so heavily on Soviet supplies and men. The Spanish Communist party is continuing to strengthen and is becoming a state within a state.

NB: There will be a ‘This Week in Spanish Civil War History; Extra’ on Primo de Rivera on November 20.

Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera – Fascist leader

November 21

The Nationalists attack the Model prison and Don Juan barracks. Using bases by the Asilo Santa Cristina Hospital and Dr Rubio Research Institute, they manage to get as far as Parque del Oeste, but are bombed by their German counterparts.

The Commune de Paris column fighting for the Republicans recapture the Hall of Philosophy and Letters Building. Books are used to protect themselves inside. It takes around 350 pages to stop a bullet.

The siege is now days away from its end.

Books as protection seen by Robert Capa

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 17: 7 – 14 November 1936

Week 17: 7 – 14 November 1936

(see Week 16: 1 -7 November 1936 for the Madrid lead-up and maps)

Republicans orange, Nationalists blue

November 7

The attack on Madrid begins. All major bridges are attacked by Nationalist troops, most taken easily on the first day of fighting. General Varela attacks from the north, and troops pour into the Casa de Campo and through Ciudad Universitaria. Nationalist troops fight Republican militia in man-to-man combat, and killing occurs one building at a time as Nationalists swarm the city. The death count rockets on both sides. Despite their soldiers’ training and weapons, Colonel Yague sees over 300 of his Legionnaires Moroccan troops killed on day one. Franco expects the Nationalists will have won within a day, unaware the International Brigade troops are one day from arriving from east, along with the Durruti Column anarchists from Barcelona, in time to back up huge number of Spanish militia and hold back the conquering of Madrid.

The start of the massacres in Paracuellos del Jarama, a small area in the north of Madrid. Political prisoners, most soldiers and priests arrested at the outbreak of war, are taken out of the city to be executed. Between November 7 until December 4, the 5,000 prisoners are moved, as the Republicans don’t want hostile Nationalist prisoners inside the city. Some are moved away from the front, but Paracuellos del Jarama is the site of multiple executions. Over the first few days, 1,000 prisoners, all Nationalist sympathisers, will be shot. The death toll will be unknown; many say 2,000-3,000, some up to 12,000.

International Brigades in Casa de Campo

November 8

The major launch on Madrid begins. General Mola attacks with 20,000 soldiers, mostly the Moroccan troops. The Condor Legion from Germany launches air strikes on the city. German officer Wilhelm Von Thoma leads German tanks alongside light amour support from Italy.

The Republicans have more men, and send 12,000 to Carabanchel, but the larger force of 30,000 heads to Casa de Campo. The problem lies in the detail; the Republican men have had little or no training at all, and have only ten rounds per rifle. Only sheer numbers hold off the Nationalists. Small groups of Moroccan regulares soldiers manage to get over the Manzanares River to Model Prison, which is the set target for the onslaught. One of the Republican leaders, General Miaja, took his scared men forward himself to try to force the soldiers back. Radios all over Madrid repeatedly called the classic ‘­­¡No pasarán!’ (they shall not pass!) slogan, calling everyone to help in the fight against the siege.

By evening, the first International Brigade arrives, the XIth battalion, from Albacete in the east. There were small in numbers, but they provided morale and back-up for the fighting Madrileños. The men had not finished their basic training. They were greeted on Gran Via as a Soviet Union battalion, though they were a mix of German, Polish, Italian French and small numbers of other countries.

Telegrams are sent to the War Ministry in Madrid, congratulating Franco on his victory; no Nationalists are in Madrid, and neither side has won anything.

Nationalist soldiers at the front

November 9

The Nationalists focus on taking the southern Carabanchel suburb. The Moroccan soldiers are trained in open-country fighting and not the urban battle they need to fight. Republicans, who work and live in the area, have the home ground advantage, and there are many Nationalist casualties as the Republicans again hold the enemy back.

The XI International brigade, 1,900 men, start their fighting in Casa de Campo alongside Republicans in the evening. Heavy fighting sees 2/3 of the Internationals killed, though the Nationalists do not advance into Madrid. Fighting will last for several days, with both sides suffering losses. The Nationalist no longer see Casa de Campo as a way into Madrid, though this is not just due to international fighting, but their presence is good for propaganda.

The San Fernando bridge, which flanks the left of the Nationalist-held area over the Manzanares River, is retaken by the Republicans.

Air strike damage

November 10

Ciudad Universitaria in the city’s north is under Republican control, though the Nationalists are prepping the take the area. Around 150 Nationalists are killed on the front line around the north of the city, a total of 2,369 casualties since the start of the siege.

The Durruti Column, a group of 3,000 anarchists from Barcelona, arrive in Madrid, ready to help defend Casa de Campo. They had been marching to Zaragoza to recover the city from the Nationalists, but had no success and carried on to Madrid to help. They are led by famous anarchist Buenaventura Durruti.

University City area held by Republicans

November 11

Another 1,000 Nationalist prisoners are killed in the Paracuellos del Jarama reportedly by the Fifth Column, a communist led group of Spanish militiamen, who are well-organised and well-trained, unlike most in the area. The prisoners, all taken from the Model Prison in inner Madrid, are shot and bodies are dumped, in retaliation for the Nationalists attacking the city. The killings are one of the Republicans’ sides most vicious single-acts against civilians.

The arrival of the Durruti column causes some discontent as the placement of the men is up for debate, as the anarchists and Madrid-based militia try to work together. Regardless of any tensions within Madrid, the Nationalists are still held outside Madrid for another day.

Refuge from bombing in the Madrid subway

November 12

The XII International Brigade arrives in Madrid and launches an attack on Cerro de los Ángeles hill, south of Madrid, only just taken by the Nationalists. This is to ensure the Nationalists cannot advance east of Madrid and claim the road to Valencia. The attack fails, but the road to Valencia is still secure. The brigade of Spanish, French, German and Austrian fighters are suffering from lack of training and supplies, and communication trouble, but the 1,500 strong brigade returns to the safety of Madrid, with minimal losses.

The children of Madrid

November 13-14

The battle continues in Carabanchel, and man-to-man fighting continues right in the military hospital, with the Republicans losing many men but still holding the area.

Fighting along the south and west of the city continues, with air strikes on the city combined with close combat fighting. The Nationalists are preparing to take Madrid via the northern Ciudad Universitaria area, as Casa de Campo and Carabanchel manage to hold safely. The International Brigades are basing themselves in the north now to hold the Nationalists back.

Republicans at the front

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Week 16: 1 – 7 November 1936

Week 16 sees the starts of the Siege of Madrid, which will last until the end of the war in 1939. Also, the Republican government leaves Madrid for Valencia

November 1

The Nationalist army, which has been marching north from Seville since the outbreak of war, has now reached the outskirts of Madrid. Around 90% of Republican fighters in Madrid are civilian militia, and the government has little control, as they have been set up by the trade unions and communist groups. All the small towns surrounding Madrid have now been taken by Nationalists and the Republicans are now backed into the city. Nationalist numbers are at now 25,000 but the Republicans have double the men. But the Nationalists are highly trained and battle ready, while the Republicans are not soldiers or have proper weapons and supplies. Propaganda leaflets are dropped over Madrid city by Italian planes, warning the public that Madrid will be wiped off the earth if they do not rise up and take the city for Nationalists.

The government has no faith in their side and expect General Mola and his Nationalist men to take the city, and plan to evacuate, including the Prime Minister. General Mola states to the English media that his four columns of regulares soldiers and Moroccan fighters will take the city, despite the difficulty of surrounding Madrid, and his fifth column, of powerful Spanish right-wingers, already in the city, will take inner Madrid. This strikes paranoia in the inhabitants, and starts killings between civilians as ‘traitors’ need to be found and executed.

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Troops in the city’s north of Ciudad Universitaria

November 2

The Republicans finally get air defense over Madrid. Russian Chatos planes have arrived just in time and start air strikes over surprised Nationalist ground troops. The public are unsure of the air strike and do not take cover. Several Russian planes are shot down by Italian retaliation for the Nationalists. The Madrid public fear German planes, and when a Russian pilot parachutes to safety after a strike, he is killed by a mob when he is mistaken for a German Condor Legion pilot.

The town of Brunete, only 15 miles west of central Madrid, is the scene for a battle between opposing sides. The Republicans lose the stronghold, giving the Nationalists a chance to get even closer to the city from the west.

The Republicans have one advantage. The Manzanares River runs through the city, providing a barrier, keeping the Nationalists from walking directly into the west and south of the city. The Casa del Campo, an open park area on the west of the city centre, is chosen as the main strike area, with forces crossing the Puente de los Franceses (Bridge of the Frenchmen). Republicans are already defending their bridge. The northern Ciudad Universitaria (University City) area of Madrid is also prepared for an attack, likewise Carabanchel in Madrid’s southwest, which has only a  small river defense.

Nationalist troops retreat with their wounded

November 4

The anarchists now join the Republican government, with four ministers involved. As the anarchists are the largest group of civilian militia fighting for the Republicans country-wide, they need their voices in government. The Republicans must reply of all factions coming together to save their country.

The south Madrid suburb of Getafe is occupied by the Nationalists. It is at the basin of the Manzanares River, giving easier access to troops. The Moroccan troops attack, with tanks and overhead air strikes, crushing the Republican protectors. Vicious General Verela, a man leading so many massacres, is proud to tell the media that he shall have destroyed Madrid within the week.

Only 115 Nationalists are killed in the Getafe battle, but southern suburbs are working class and heavily populated, meaning it is not a good place to engage in street battles. Verela instead plans to attack Ciudad Universitaria in the north, where the population have fled for the safety of the inner city.

Republican militia defend their barricades in the south

November 5

The Republican reinforcements of Russian planes and pilots have some success when they bomb surrounding Nationalist troops, and an impeding northern assault of the city is beaten back.

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The Republicans defend the outskirts of the city

November 6

The Nationalist troops continue their southern assault under cruel Colonel Yague, and conquer Carabanchel and take the Cerro de los Angeles hill, the geographical centre of Spain, and prime lookout area over the plains around southern Madrid. The Nationalists are now all-but in the inner city of Madrid, with Republicans ever squeezed into the capital. The new Junta de Defensa de Madrid (military government team) is set up under General Miaja and is ready to take Madrid.

Propaganda is rife

The Republican government flees to Valencia, 350kms to the east on the coast. While this means men in ‘power’ are safe, as well as the government itself, the civilians and fighters of Madrid are left to face the Nationalists, with their German and Italian fascist back-up, on their own.

A simplified map of the Madrid suburbs

November 7

The attack on Madrid begins. All major bridges are attacked by Nationalist troops, most taken easily on the first day of fighting. General Verela attacks from the north, and troops pour into the Casa del Campo and through Ciudad Universitaria. Nationalist troops fight Republican militia in man-to-man combat, and killing occurs one building at a time as Nationalists swarm the city. The death count rockets on both sides. Despite their soldiers’ training and weapons, Colonel Yague sees over 300 of his Legionnaires Moroccan troops killed on day one. Franco expects the Nationalists will have won within a day, unaware the International Brigade troops are one day from arriving from east, along with the Durruti Column anarchists from Barcelona, in time to back up huge number of Spanish militia and hold back the conquering of Madrid.

The attack begins

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit