This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 121 – 124: 1 – 30 November 1938

November 3

After occupying Pandols Range on November 2, the Nationalists fighting in the battle of the Ebro finally reach the water’s edge itself. With the Republicans either slaughtered or captured, and the International Brigades withdrawn at the Prime Minister’s command, nothing is stopping the Nationalists crossing into Catalonia.

November 7

The town of Cabra, 70 kilometres southeast of Córdoba, is bombed from the air by the Republicans. Between three bombers, some six tonnes of bombs are dropped in a surprise morning attack. The bombs are dropped on the market and working class areas, with one bomb weighing 200 kilograms landing right in the morning marketplace. The Republicans catch the Nationalists off-guard, who don’t have time to react. The plan is to hit the Italian troops stationed in Cabra, and the pilots think they see military tents, but instead hit the market awnings. Around 109 civilians are killed with another 200 injured in a scathing mistake.

November 10 

The Nationalists have crossed the Ebro river to take the small town of Móra la Nova, on the east side of the river in Catalonia province. They also have Mount Picossa, the final main strategic point in the Battle of the Ebro. The Republicans have no way to stop the Nationalists now.

November 16

The remaining Nationalist forces cross the Ebro at Flix and the battle is over. The Republican army is now destroyed, losing most of its men and all of its equipment, and the Republican airforce has nothing left to fight Franco’s rebels, losing 150 planes in the fight. Both sides have suffered massive losses over the four-month battle. The estimate of deaths ranges between 50,000 to 100,000 people, with another 20,000 to 30,000 captured. The Nationalists have sacrificed many of their finest officers, while the Republicans lost their experienced men and all their weapons. Even the Nationalists need to repair all of what they had left.

Franco signs a new deal with Germany, who send in new weapons in return for mining contracts, so the Nationalists can regroup and launch an attack on Catalonia. The Republicans have long used an approach of constantly attacking Nationalist positions, rather than planning solid defense, meaning Catalonia and its capital Barcelona have no safety, and the propaganda gained from constant attacks now has no use. The one positive note of the Ebro battles is that since the Nationalists had to turn around troops and weapons to the mountains, saving Valencia from being captured.

Remaining Republican men at the end of the battle

November 25

The Republicans now have no solid army, and the Nationalists are regrouping for a December attack on Catalonia. They need to bring 340,000 men together to cover the front-line from the Pyrenees to the Mediterranean, along the Catalonia border. The Republicans need to bring together 200,000 men to defend the region, though with no weapons, the men will be unarmed. The Soviets agree to send what artillery they can, though the battle is looking to be another slaughter by the Nationalists.

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A Cromwell Adventure – Part 10: Henry Fitzroy

Seven days from now, SHAKING THE THRONE will be available! Today is part four of a ten-part series, letting you into the world of King Henry VIII’s Chief Minister Thomas Cromwell, and his master secretary Nicóla Frescobaldi, as they embark on part two of THE QUEENMAKER SERIES.

Part one of the series, FRAILTY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS, is out now, covering Cromwell and Frescobaldi in 1529 – 1533,  SHAKING THE THRONE, covering 1533-1536, will be available worldwide on October 1st. NO AMOUR AGAINST FATE shall cover 1537 – 1540 and will be released September 2019.

Let’s jump right in, but first, the synopsis –

November 1533 – Thomas Cromwell and Nicóla Frescobaldi have their queen on the throne. The Catholic Church is being destroyed as the Reformation looms over England. Cromwell has total power at court and in parliament, while Frescobaldi wins favour with the King’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy.

But England’s fate is uncertain. The nobles still despise Cromwell and his Italian creature. Anne has not given the king a son. Queen Katherine refuses to give up her title, and Thomas More and Bishop Fisher defy their king. The final Plantagenets think they should hold the throne, while the Catholics want Princess Mary named as heir.

England can be reformed, but Cromwell must dissolve all the monasteries and abbeys, and with the King on his side, the plan to change religion will sever heads. Queen Anne is losing Henry’s love, but Cromwell could suffer if Anne loses her crown. Frescobaldi creates a daring plan to replace Anne and regain the Pope’s favour, but Cromwell must execute the plans on his own. Schemes will go astray and the wrong heads will be severed to satisfy a vengeful sovereign.

Kings will rise, Queens shall fall, children will perish, and the people of England will march in a pilgrimage to take Cromwell’s head, but Frescobaldi will have to make the ultimate sacrifice.

Read part 1, part 2 and part 3 of the FAQ’s here, otherwise here we go…

Henry Fitzroy

Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, 1519 -1536

In late 1518, Henry VIII’s glorious wife Queen Katherine was pregnant for the final time, and Henry was enjoying the company of his long-term mistress, teenager Elizabeth ‘Bessie’ Blount. Elizabeth was a maid to the Queen and Henry’s quiet mistress for about eight years, young and exceptionally beautiful. The only twist – Elizabeth got pregnant at the same time as Katherine. In November 1518, Katherine delivered of a girl, who sadly died after birth. It would be Katherine’s final child.

Elizabeth, however, continued her pregnancy and in June 1519, gave birth to a boy at Augustinian Priory of St Lawrence at Blackmore, which no doubt crushed poor Katherine. Henry though was thrilled, as it proved he was capable for making sons.

Henry grew uninterested in Elizabeth after the birth of their son, who was named Henry Fitzroy, meaning ‘son of the king’. Elizabeth was only around 17 when she gave birth, and went on to marry and have more children, while Fitzroy was raised in obscurity. But Fitzroy meant something to Henry, for he was the only illegitimate child the King ever acknowledged. Elizabeth may have given birth again in 1520, a daughter that may have been the King’s. Elizabeth never returned to the royal court as a mistress, as Henry had moved on to Mary Boleyn, while Elizabeth went on to give her husband many children.

Come June 1525, little Fitzroy was six, and his father made him a Knight of the Garter, and then Duke of Richmond and Somerset in a glorious spectacle at court. The King had already married off both Elizabeth Blount and Mary Boleyn, and was eager to celebrate his ability to have a boy. Little Fitzroy became Lord High Admiral of England, Lord President of the Council of the North, and Warden of the Marches towards Scotland. At age six, Fitzroy was the highest ranked man in the north of England.

Young Fitzroy went to live in Yorkshire, living like a prince and received a top quality education. The King even thought his son, known as handsome, intelligent and gentlemanly, fine enough to marry Henry’s daughter Princess Mary (yes, his own half-sister). Even the Pope was ready to let the siblings wed for the sake of the throne. Luckily, for Fitzroy, Princess Mary and genetics in general, Henry fell in live with Anne Boleyn, and instead thought he could save this throne with Anne’s womb.

Fitzroy continued his quiet yet generous upbringing during his father’s angry divorce from Queen Katherine, never seeing his mother, but reports of his life reached his father, who adored his son. In 1532, Fitzroy met the French king, and corresponded with the Scots king. By November 1533, Fitzroy was married to Lady Mary Howard, daughter to the Duke of Norfolk. It was a celibate marriage, to spare Fitzroy’s health, as the King believed sex had contributed to his brother Arthur’s death.

Fitzroy spent no time with his wife, but rather her brother, Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. Fitzroy was living in London at St. James’ Palace in the mid-1530’s, when he was called to sit on the jury at the trial of Anne Boleyn. Fitzroy watched his stepmother executed and then attended his father’s marriage to Jane Seymour two weeks later.

In this turbulent time, young Fitzroy was ill. He suffered chest infections and a nasty cough many times, but now couldn’t shake off his illness. Just a month after his 17th birthday, Fitzroy was bedridden with consumption, and died at St. James’ Palace. Some claimed poison, so Fitzroy could not be elevated over Princess Mary or baby Princess Elizabeth in the line of succession, but no proof ever appeared as Henry refused an autopsy.

King Henry, in his raw grief, ordered Fitzroy’s death hushed up, and the Duke of Norfolk sent Fitzroy’s body 80 miles north to Thetford Priory, where Fitzroy was buried with no dignity. Days later, the grieving King screamed at the burial, regretting, or even forgetting, his own decision, and it was a turning point in Henry’s behaviour in his final decade. Henry had only told Fitzroy month earlier that he felt grateful he and Princess Mary had been saved from the clutches of Anne Boleyn, but now his perfect son was gone.

Once the dissolution of the monasteries reached Thetford Priory, Fitzroy was moved to St. Michael’s Church, Framlingham in  Suffolk, and was only joined by his wife in 1557, after never marrying and shunning royal life.

Fitzroy is a central character in SHAKING THE THRONE as the cherished only son of King Henry, the never-King of England.

Tomorrow – themes in the novel: Sir Thomas More, Bishop John Fisher and Elizabeth Barton

FRAILTY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS, the first edition in the Queenmaker trilogy, is available worldwide in paperback and on Kindle now.

FROM NOW UNTIL OCTOBER 1ST, GET BOOK ONE FOR 50% off on Kindle.

‘BLOOD IN THE VALENCIAN SOIL’ third edition cover art – free copies available all week!

Blood-in-the-Valencian-Soil-Amazon

The whole Secrets of Spain series is getting new cover art for the new editions – same book, updated beauty!

New to the story of Luna Montgomery and Cayetano Beltran? Here is the synopsis –

Pleasure is as fragile as glass…

Spain, March 1939 – the Spanish Civil War is coming to an end. Five young Republicans in the small town of Cuenca know they are on the losing side of the war. History only recognises the winners, and the group know they could die, all destined to become faceless statistics. They concoct a plan to go to Valencia in search of safety, but not all of these young men and women are going to survive?

Seventy years later, bicycle mechanic Luna Montgomery, the granddaughter of a New Zealand nurse who served during the Spanish Civil War, has made Spain her home. A young widow and mother of two little boys, Luna wants to know what became of her Spanish grandfather. He is one of the ‘disappeared’, one of the hundreds of thousands of Spaniards who were murdered and hidden away during and after the war. On a quick trip to Madrid, Luna forms an unlikely friendship with an intelligent and popular bullfighter, Cayetano Beltran, but as Luna presses on to delve into Spain’s history for answers, Cayetano struggles with truths he wished he had never found out. In an ever-changing society that respects and upholds family ties, betrayal by the people that Luna and Cayetano hold dear will hurt them more than they could have realised. There are old wounds that have yet to heal underneath Spain’s ‘pact of forgetting’.

From 12.01am Monday until 11.59pm Friday (PST), BLOOD IN THE VALENCIAN SOIL is free on kindle on all worldwide Amazon sites. Plenty of people have already jumped in and got a copy before I could even announce the special deal, but it’s not too late to grab one for yourself.

CLICK HERE TO GRAB YOUR COPY NOW! (US SITE)

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 104 – 107: 1 – 31 July 1938 – Two Years of War; the 80th Anniversary of Ebro

July 1

July 1938 has all eyes on Valencia, Catalonia and Aragon, and yet in the south-west, the Mérida pocket is also suffering new battles. Extremadura, the most western area of Spain, was quickly taken by the Nationalists when the war broke out, but the Mérida pocket is the sole area held by Republicans, an area west of Mérida in the La Serena region in Badajoz province. Franco wants the Mérida pocket in his control to settle the entire region. If Republicans could take Mérida, then they could cut the Nationalist zone in Extremadura in half. While the Nationalists had quietly secured the frontline along the  Zújar River in June, Franco implements a plan to circle all remaining Republican men and execute the whole lot, whose numbers could be as high as 10,000.

July 10

The Battle of the Ebro preparation is well underway. The Republican Ebro Army was formed on May 15 by the Republicans, in response to massive gains made by the Nationalists as they murder their way through the Valencia region. Lieutenant Colonel Juan Modesto took control of both the 5th and 15th Army Corps, which combined the 35th International Division (made of the XI, XIII and XV International Brigades), the 3rd Division (made of the 31st, 33rd and 60th mixed brigades) the 42nd Division (made of the 226th, 227th and 59th brigades), the 15th Army Corps (with the 16th Popular Republican Army Division of the 12th Army Corps) and the 3rd Cavalry Regiment. By mid-July many anti-aircraft weapons arrive along with 11th Division (made of the  1st, 9th and 100th mixed brigades), the 46th Division (made of the 10th, 60th and 101st mixed brigades) and the 45th Division International Division (made with the 12th”Garibaldi”, 14th “Marsellesa” and 139th mixed brigades).

July 13

The Republicans add more to their numbers with the 12th Army Corps, now led by Lieutenant Colonel Etelvino Vega. The 12th Army Corps was then made up of the 16th Division (including the  23rd and 24th mixed brigades) and the 44th Division (including  the 140th, 144th and 145th mixed brigades). The 18th Army Corps bring Lieutenant Colonel José del Barrio to lead the 27th Division (including  the 122nd “la Bruixa”, the 123rd and 124th mixed brigades), the 60th Division (with the 95th, 84th and 224th mixed brigades) and 43th Division (with the 72nd, 102nd and 130th mixed brigades). At its height, the Republican troops will number 80,000 men.

Republican soldiers at the Ebro, July 1938

July 15

The Nationalist army has been storming regions around the Ebro for months and have many huge battalions in the area. The Army of the North, controlled by  General Fidel Davila, a powerful and successful group, are flanked by the 40th, 50th and 105th Divisions of the Moroccan Army Corps under vicious General Yague. Included in the Moroccan Corps are the Legionarios, Regulares, the Carlists and Falaganists and African mercenaries, all groups well-known over the past two years for wild slaughter, torture and rape of troops and civilians. General Rafael García Valiño’s Maestrazgo Army Corps, made of the 1st Navarra Division and the 74th, 84th and 13th Divisions are also very close by, having controlled the northwest Valencia region. The numbers the Nationalists have/can access is 90,000 experienced men. 

Legionnaires on the Ebro, July, 1938

July 18

Today marks two years of civil war in Spain. The death tolls is already into the hundreds of thousands, with no spot in the country unaffected. Madrid continues to be held by the Republicans while surrounded by Nationalists, who still cannot get through the front-lines. Catalonia’s uprising with the rights of workers has long dimmed as the war nears their own streets, and the Aragonese anarchist lifestyle has been destroyed. Concentration camps have been set up to take Republicans, if they are not first executed. All major cities, except for capital Valencia, Madrid and Barcelona, rest in Nationalist hands. Europe is looking nervously at Hitler, yet not helping the people of Spain, already suffering Hitler’s power as Franco looks to join Hitler and Mussolini as Europe’s great fascist leaders. Precious few believe in the Republican cause now, which is the one card they have to play in the Battle of the Ebro, as they have the element of surprise on the Nationalist troops.

July 20

South in Extremadura, the Mérida Pocket is going to be closed by the Nationalists. General Saliquet,  based in the northern area of the Badajoz region, marches his men south into La Serena, where the Republican front-line is strong. At the same time, General Queipo de Llano has been marching his men northwest towards La Serena. This makes the Republicans embattled at both their major front-lines, and are routinely pounded by gunfire for four days.

La Serena

24 July

The Republican divisions, the VII Army Corps with the 36th and 36th Divisions from Algodar to Zújar, and the VIII Army Corps with the 38th, 63rd and 51st divisions from Zújar to Guadalmellato, are completely overtaken by Nationalist troops. The battle ends with the massive slaughter of troops throughout the Don Benito and Villanueva de la Serena areas, murdering the whole Extramaduran Republican Army. This short battle is the largest slaughter of troops in the region (as civilian slaughter  and imprisonment has been wholesale here since the outbreak of war). Nationalist men continue their march through the Mérida pocket of La Serena, eastwards into Toledo province, where the Republican 91st and 109th mixed brigades are trapped on every side. These remaining men are rounded up to be placed in the Castuera concentration camp 45 kilometres south, though most will be executed in the camp. Colonel Ricardo Burillo, leader of the Extremadura Army Corps, survives, and is dismissed after the bloody defeat of around 10,000, while the Nationalists have lost almost no one.

Republicans cross the Ebro

July 25

After a week of planning, the commanders of the 14th Republican Army Corps cross the Ebro river, to watch the Nationalists, taking their positions while other troops prepare river crossings. The Nationalists soon see what is happening, reporting to Franco that the Republicans and their International Brigades are on the bank of the river with rafts and pontoons. Franco is not concerned, aware of how weakened the Republicans have been in the area.

The early hours of July 25 are completely dark with no moon. Between Fayon and Benifallet, a 45 kilometre bend in the river, the commanders again cross the river and kill 50th Division Nationalist guards posted in the area. After fastening assault boats, the first of 90 boats cross, ten men in each boat, under darkness. All following troops  then cross on pontoon bridges at daybreak. The Nationalists are totally unprepared for this wide attack, overcome in surprise. The International Brigade attack 40 kilometres south of Benifallet at Amposta, but are overpowered within the first 18 hours of combat, with the few survivors retreating back over the Ebro.

Around 4,000 Nationalist men of the 50th division are imprisoned, while some manage to desert. The Republican 15th Army Corps carry on, and advance three miles north, while the 5th Army Corps manage a huge 21 kilometres east.

July 26

The Republicans have marched 30 kilometres south to Gandesa, and now occupy 800 square kilometres, but cannot hold Gandesa, as the Nationalists’ 13th division have the town fortified. Franco frantically deploys more troops to counter the attacks, with an extra eight divisions, 140 bombers and 100 fighters sent to the Ebro. The Nationalists hold the dams at Tremp and Camarasa, which are opened, flooding the Republican pontoons, which take two days to repair. At the same time the German Condor Legion and Italian  Aviazione Legionaria bomb the pontoon bridges, which can only be repaired at night. Due to the planes and the flooding, the Republicans have only got 22 tanks and minimal artillery over the bridges, leaving men exposed and without water and food.

International Brigades cross at Minveret

July 27

The town of Gandesa is a key target for the Republicans, which is 25 kilometres west of their first river crossing point. Gandesa is surrounded by hilly limestone terrain in the Caballs, Pandols and Fatarella ranges. The limestone hills have little shelter, leaving the men at the mercy of overhead bombers. But they push on, spread out over a 35 kilometre line, eager to take Gandesa, a pivotal town into Catalonia, so men and tanks are forced over the limestone hillsides.

Republicans in the hard terrrain

July 31

The leading Nationalist commanders want to hold their ground at Grandesa, keeping the town in their hands and stopping the Republicans, while also planning to attack them from the north. But Franco is unwilling to listen to this, as he is pleased to have the strength of the Republican army trapped within a 35 kilometre stretch. Regardless of the loss of life, Franco wants the Nationalists to regain all the ground they have lost, rather than holding Republicans in place. Franco wants them back over the Ebro and killed.

The International Brigades, who have been mixed with 15th Army Corps, have regrouped after their failed crossing at Amposta, and plan an attempt to take Hill 481, right outside the town of Gandesa. It will be a risky attack, with no cover from the air bombers. The battle still has four months to run.

British troops at Hill 481

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the month’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 100 – 103: 1 – 30 June 1938

100 weeks into the 80th anniversary blog and still going, not a week missed (okay, sometimes late, but life happens)!

June 6

The small town of Bielsa on the border with France has been home to the Bielsa Pocket, all-out fighting for almost two months. The town of 4,000 people has been protected by the Republican 43rd division led by Antonio Beltran, though they have lost many men. The Nationalists have the entire Aragon and Huesca regions under their control, and only need to defeat the 43rd division, which have only half the number of men and almost no artillery. Much of the population of the Pineta Valley area around Bielsa has followed the Alto Cinca river north  to the border into France, which is still currently open. But on the morning of June 6, the Nationalists break through the frontline to take the town of Biesla. The battle has no importance to the war, yet the hold-up since mid-April means that many Republicans have been able to flee to safety through the difficult terrain into France. This delay in the Nationalist march gives the Republicans a huge morale boost as the 6,000 Republican soldiers bravely fought back.

Pineta valley and Alto Cinca river into France

June 13

The Levante Offensive has continued, despite the huge cache of Soviet artillery the Republicans have received over the French  border. The Nationalists, continuing their three-pronged attack from the north, west, and northwest battalions, take Castellón, capital of the Levante region of north Valencia. It is General Rafael Garcia Valiño’s northwest battalion which has fought its way south through the harsh mountainous terrain, bombing and destroying villages such as Benassal, Albocásser, Ares del Maestrat, and Vilar de Canes. Many in this arid region have never seen bombs or German aircraft, and were killed without resistance. Vilafamés  has an airfield which makes the village a target, the town crushed in the Nationalist trek south to Castellón. Castellón is a key port for the Nationalists to gain, to receive more equipment needed to continue south.

Vilafames in 1938

(Side note: I first visited Vilafamés 13 years ago, when it was still a loooong way off the tourist trail, and is still quiet now. Finding any evidence of the SCW was either hidden or locked away from the public.  The locals thought me suspicious, a foreigner loaded down with babies and looking for war info. Lots of old ladies twitching their curtains. 

In February this year, Vilafamés reopened the old war airfield and its 11,000 square-metre area, home to the old aviation telecommunications tower,  air-raid shelters, staff kitchens, 200 metres of trenches, basic shelters, ammunition store, pilot flying records, a life-size replica of a Polikarpov I-15 ‘Chato’ aircraft, and memorial plaques. All of these areas are fully accessible to the public, considered a living museum, and also has a full military re-enactment camp, medical tents, radio posts and machine gun positions. They have also written a book on the area, which is a good read if you know Spanish, though being filled with photographs and artwork, anyone can enjoy) 

Click here to read more about the book and authors

Franco wants to be in Valencia by July 25, only 70km south of Castellón, and wants the port village of Sagunto, just 30km north of Valencia, immediately. But the Condor Legion are exhausted after bombing their way south through the Levante, and wants to be withdrawn. Generals call for the battle to Valencia to be abandoned, but Franco will not oblige. By the end of the month, Franco will reinforce the Levante troops, now given new leaders, fresh men and an enormous artillery, with some 900 cannons, 400 new aircraft and 50 Italian bombers. The men will be put into the Turia corps, but the second half of June yields little result. The Sierra Espada, the mountains leading from Sagunto on the coast northwest towards Teruel are impossible terrain for Nationalist troops, and the Republicans have managed to hold them back. The reinforcements are coming, and yet the Republicans are in a firm position to hold Sagunto and Valencia.

There are still many war secrets hidden in this area

June 16

The Republican fighters who held the Bielsa pocket complete their final retreat, with the last troops crossing the border into France. The French government gives them a choice – they can re-enter Spain on the Republican or Nationalist side. While 411 men and five nurses choose to join the Nationalists, another 6,000 re-enter Spain to continue the fight against the Francoists.

The 43rd division

June 25

The border from Spain to France as been open since March 17, allowing many people over to safety and weapons in to fight Franco’s men. But the flow of weapons and refugees has taken a toll on France and its relations with other nations in Europe. The border is ordered closed again, cutting off countless thousands from reaching safety. The closure of the border means that Spaniards are completely on their own again while the Nationalists still have access to men and weapons via Italy and Germany. With the border again closed and countries all trying to stay out of the war while they worry about European war, the time the International Brigades can remain in Spain is starting to look short, but first shall come July’s Ebro Offensive.

The below video has no date of the footage nor the location it was shot, but does show how many wished to escape into France on any given day during the precious three months the border was open. 

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This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the month’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.