This Week in Spanish Civil War History – Weeks 117 – 120: 1 – 31 October 1938

October 2

The Nationalists attack Hill 565 in the Sierra Pandols-Cavalls, taking the strategic post. The Republicans have held this high point since the start of the offensive. On this hillside is an old Moorish tower, which the XV International Brigades used as a general protection site, along with the many caves where men hid from sight during the fighting.  By now, most hill locations defended by the Republicans and International Brigades have been taken by the Nationalists, and many International battalions are starting to retreat from the battle, due to the command that all foreign fighters withdraw from Spain.

October 4

The intensely useless Non-Intervention Committee continues its withdraw of all foreign fighters in Spain. This is done in the hope that Franco and his fascists start to withdraw their 50,000 foreign men (and 30,000 Moroccan Legionnaires) from the battle – but why would they when they are making such sweeping gains? The Republicans start their withdrawal of the International Brigades, though many battalions have already fought their last battles and started their trek into Catalonia to leave Spain for good.

October 8

Sant Vicenç de Calders railway station, three kilometres outside the Catalonia village of  Sant Vicenç, is attacked from the air by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. The station is an important one, where the junction lines between Barcelona to Madrid and Barcelona to Valencia meet. While the main village is nearby, the station itself is surrounded by the railway town. The bombing starts  as a civilian train from Tarragona is arriving at the station on its way to Barcelona. A single plane came from the sea, as the planes were based at Palma de Mallorca, and hit the train directly. The bombing killed 60 people and injured another 100, many trampled by the panic caused. It would not be the first attack on this strategic railway station, and is only 70 kilometres along the coast from Barcelona.

October 16

The Nationalists breach Hill 666 in the Sierra Panadols, the key point of the Pandols-Cavalls mountain range, which shall lead the Nationalists straight down to the Ebro itself. While the Republicans still hold the Sierra Pandols, they are now isolated pockets of men in caves, bravely holding out in the face of mass casualties. Some 50 kilometres north in the battle, the Republicans are also losing ground near Mequinenza, making the battle ever more difficult as the Spanish fighters are without any of their international men.

International Brigades near Falset (50 kilometres from the Ebro) 16 October as they prepare to leave Spain

October 29

The International Brigades have met their sad end after a bloody and brutal volunteer battle to save Spain. Around  10,000 foreign volunteers are still in Spain for the Republicans. The battles have had around 20,000 foreign fighters on the front-lines at their height, with some 35,000 total coming to Spain, with 15,000 killed and left behind. Of the 10,000 still in the country, half are exiles or refugees from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, and other European nations such as Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the Balkans, Austria, Poland, all which currently have right-wing governments, are annexed by, or under threat from, Germany.  Those remaining from Belgium and the Netherlands have lost their right as citizens for fighting for a foreign army. Those from countries not supporting the rising Fascism of Europe (England, France, the U.S and Canada, Ireland, Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Chile, Argentina, olivia, Ukraine, China, India, Japan, Mongolia, the Palestine Jews, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Syria, Iran, Iraq – seriously, everyone came), were sent either immediately home, or were herded into camps north of the French border to either die there or eventually get home in time to suffer WWII. Those who chose not to return to their dangerous countries were drafted into Spanish battalions to stay on as Spaniards. Regardless of what country these men and women came from, their return home was not as heroes, as many suffered consequences of their decision to flee their countries to save Spain. None will be offered safe haven in Spain until the mid-1990’s.

Farewell parade in Barcelona 29 October

October 30

The Nationalist Army of the Maestrazgo is taken over by Morroccan General Mohammed Meziane, and they attack the Pandols-Cavalls sierra one more time, this time to end the battle to the river. Armed with the entire battalion, 100 aircraft from the Condor Legion and 175 guns, the Nationalists attack and take 19 fortified Republican positions, resulting in the deaths of 1,500 Republican troops and take another 1,000 men prisoner. With this, the Nationalists now can hike down the eastern side of the mountains to the Ebro, where its waters run along the border of Aragon in Catalonia. The Republicans are now in serious trouble, with a bloody Catalonia Offensive already planned by Franco.

Click on this great map to go to Richard Baxell’s site to learn so much more about the battles than I could ever manage to write. Baxell is an A+ expert on the war and International Brigades.

*thank you for your patience with these posts while I was delayed with the release of my latest book. 

~~

This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the month’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.

Advertisements